Key question 1. 1 what are the features of a desert atmosphere that make it extreme? * The climatic, biotic and soil features of a desert environment. * The links in between climate, biotic and soil characteristics. Key pertanyaan 1. 2 how is manusia activity bring about pressures on the desert environment? * The risks that space posed by (i) population growth; (ii) mineral exploitation; (iii) farming; (iv) tourism. * The optimistic and an adverse outcomes of manusia activity. Key question 1. 3 apa are the strategies that have the right to be used to manage manusia activity in deserts? * strategies that attempt to (i) conserve the desert environment; (ii) alleviate the impacts of umat manusia activity; (iii) regulate the use of the desert environment (iv) monitor the results of manusia activity. * The function of local, national and also international teams in the management of the desert environment.
Anda sedang menonton: Flora dan fauna di afrika
The biotic setting
Vegetation zones The kepala vegetation zones in Namibia space arid or semi-arid. Along the pesisir vegetation is very sparse. Deeper into the interior hardy succulents show up followed by stunted acacias. Desert scrub is a function of the southern with the quivertree growing about Keetmanshoop. Over the Kalahari the scrub make method for a combination of scattered trees with bunch grasses (savanna). In the phia băc deciduous trees are more important.
Therophytes are yearly plants i beg your pardon regenerate indigenous seed. This are very common Cryptophytes are adapted to extremes of heat or cold and persist since they regenerate from buds, bulbs or rhizomes the are totally buried in the soil. Hemicryptophytes are usual of moist warm regions. Castle die bagian belakang at the finish of the cultivation season and also buds are protected by the withered leaves and soil. Chamaephytes include kecil shrubs and herbs that flourish close come the ground. Snow offers some defense during cold winter months. Phanerophytes space trees and kecil shrubs. They lug buds on the tips of branches. They space characteristic of hot or gentle moist environments where plants room not subject to drought or frost. Jenis of plants discovered in the desert
Factors affecting desert ecosystems kecil leaved
Types of tree Xerophytes plants which can cope with conditions of dryness Phreatophytes tree which have long tap root to manipulate water resources deep rahasia Halophytes tree which can cope through saline soils Therophytes plants which room annual and also grow indigenous seed in the ground, thus able to manipulate rain straightaway
Characteristic plant life forms in deserts Succulent perennials – really specialised plants however which typify plenty of desert landscapes Non-succulent perennials – these represent most of the tree in the Namib Desert Annuals – plants which manipulate the tiny rain the desert it s okay by cultivation from seed really quickly and also having a fast life cycle
Succulent perennials Clockwise from top Welwitschia mirabilis Aloe dichomata (Kokerboom tree) Euphorbia virosa Euphorbia damarana Pachypodium namaquanum (Halfmens) Pachypodium lealii (Cobas tree)
Aloe namibensis Aloe pillansii Bastard Quiver Tree Moringa ovalifolia Tylecodon paniculatus Botterboom
Specialised succulents Lithops ruschiorum looks choose a rock camouflage Conophytum stephanii has hairy leaves to collect droplets the fog. Conophytum wettsteinii Conophytum pupicalyx juga collects droplets of fog
Non-succulent perennials Grasses, e. G. Stipagrostis Bushes, e. G. Nara melon (Acanthosicyos horridus) Trees, e. G. Camelthorn (Acacia erioloba)
Suaedia articulata occurs as a low lying shrub top top the salt pan in ~ Etosha Sporobolus spicatus Commiphora saxicola Commiphora dinteri
Annuals Gazania Nineawn pappusgrass Enneapogon desvauxii Lovegrass - Eragrostis annulata Sarcocaulon patersonii Cleome hirta
Adaptations of tree to arid settings Drought escaping – therophytes (annual plants) which flourish from seed whenever rain falls. Although seed carry out not rot quickly in the desert environment numerous may be shed to predators. Part plants display screen amphicarpy by bearing seeds both above and listed below ground.
Adaptations of plants to arid environments Stipagrostis obtusa Stipagrostis sabulicola – Dune grass drought evading – perennial plants which live over surface continually yet wither during waktu of drought and also grow again once rain falls. Roots room shallow however are may be to stay dormant when water is no available. In Namibia many of these are dune grasses that the Stipagrostis family.
Adaptations of tree to arid atmospheres Drought enduring – tree which have the right to endure dryness by deep roots(up come 50 m deep), which flourish even throughout periods of extreme drought, i beg your pardon have small shiny leaves, where the leaves have the right to change arah in stimulate to face or prevent the sunlight (heliotropy), and also where stomata within the leaves room rolled up to minimize transpiration Acacia erioloba – the camelthorn has actually roots as much as 50 m deep
Adaptations of plants to arid settings Drought resisting – tree which have learnt to usage very tiny water, i. E. Succulent plants wherein leaves are reduced to spines, surface are heavily waxed to alleviate water loss, and also where water is stored within a special trunk come be used slowly
Many plants show allelopathy, i. E. They are poisonous one of two people to herbivores or come the soil. Allelopathy over there is one intense struggle for sources in the desert – no so much for light together in the tropic rain forest, but for nutrients, space and water. The sap of Euphorbia virosa is digunakan by bushmen to maskaan poison arrows. Euphorbia damarana leaves toxins in the soil approximately it which membuat circular patches where no various other plants can grow and compete for water. Geigeria africana (above) and Cotyledon orbiculata (left) reason the disease vermeersickte in cattle and also sheep if lock eat the plant. The animals become paralysed.
Many flowers open at night to tempt moths. Others open up at midday for bees to pollinate the plant. Pollination Hoodia has vibratile hair which move even when there is no wind, attracting flies. Its scent and also colour is that of rotting meat so the flies perform the pollination. Several plants, such as Hoodia (right) and also Euphorbia Fenestraria is a tree which hides in the sand leaving just ephedroides (below) are brown the top of its pipeline showing, which space transparent. In colour together a protection against the high radiation color
Animal methods to attain water The meerkat and African ground squirrel remain beneath the sand in burrows throughout the day. Tenebrionid beetles seperti as the species Onymacris unguicularis collection water indigenous the fog by berdiri on anda hind legs and facing the moist wind. The shovel-snouted lizard Meroles The sun spider is anchietae buries a solifuge. It karakter itu in the sand stays clear of the warm where the soil by temperature is a jumping off the couple of degrees cooler soil every few seconds.
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The gemsbok or oryx conserves water by having actually solid urine. It pants to lose heat and also has a brief shiny coat. These room all qualities of a hyperthermic animal, i. E. One which deserve to cope v high temperatures. Some pets display aestivation (the opposite of hibernation) and also sleep because that the hot summer months. Fauna - herbivores most animals are nocturnal to prevent the warm of the day. Animals are prepared to migrate numerous miles in mencari of water, e. G. The desert adjusted elephant.
Fauna - carnivores Desert adapted lion have the right to travel plenty of miles in search of prey. The bat eared fox and also caracal have large ears i beg your pardon lose warm rapidly. The sand viper Bitis peringueyi gets the water it needs from the prey.