Abstract

Molabot Tumpe is a unique traditional ritual that binds together Batui and also Banggai, 2 geographically distant Muslim areas of East-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The ritual is composed of an yearly offering of maleo bird egg by the inhabitants of Batui to the élite the the old Banggai sultanate. Originating in tribute-giving ceremonies and ancestral cults, the objective of the ritual is currently understood and explained in completely Islamised honest terms. However, both the basic purpose and the specific details that the ritual have actually been contested by environmentalists, by component of the classic local élite, and by advocates of islam reformism, the terakhir of whom pertanyaan the accepted penafsiran of the ritual’s purpose, and its moral foundations, and object to critical elements the the ceremonies, especially the idea the possession by genealogical spirits. Besides offering an ethnographic description of the ritual, the short article addresses the general masalah of spiritual syncretism in Islam.

Anda sedang menonton: Teks doa upacara 17 agustus 2017


Abstract

Molabot Tumpe is a unique timeless ritual that binds together Batui and Banggai, two geographically distant Muslim neighborhoods of East-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The ritual is composed of an annual offering the maleo bird eggs by the penduduk of Batui to the élite the the old Banggai sultanate. Originating in tribute-giving ceremonies and genealogical cults, the purpose of the ritual is currently understood and also explained in extensively Islamised ethical terms. However, both the general purpose and the precise details the the ritual have been challenged by environmentalists, by component of the timeless local élite, and by supporters of islam reformism, the terakhir of whom pertanyaan the accepted penafsiran of the ritual’s purpose, as well as its morell foundations, and also object to an essential elements of the ceremonies, especially the idea that possession by genealogical spirits. Besides giving an ethnographic summary of the ritual, the post addresses the general melepaskan of religious syncretism in Islam.


Keywords: islamic ritual; Indonesia; Sulawesi; Banggai sultanate; religious syncretism; genealogical spirits

Religious syncretism in Islam has tendency to be regarded, whether explicitly or implicitly, as a distinct melangkah in the procedure of Islamisation. A related presumption seems to be that, fan to raising contacts with the city centres of islam civilisation and also increasing familiarity v the authoritative sources of islamic law and also ethics, syncretistic religious traditions space destined come be progressively displaced by much more normative (i.e. Text-oriented) formulir of religiosity and eventually by modern reformist versions of Islam. The readjust is hence seen as unidirectional, bergerak towards lebih besar lagi conformity with normative, text-oriented spiritual praxis, and also syncretism is implicitly taken as resulting from inadequate pengetahuan of the textual legacy of Islam.1

To it is in sure, the existence of sebagai a textual legacy is an extremely important factor, which should alert united state to the certain problems attendant top top the riset of rumit societies. Also the remotest countryside Muslim communities are not sepenuhnya isolated from the wider world that Islam, and also studying the web links to the centuries-old islam “grand tradition” must necessarily form part that the research on local society and religious life, an excellent though the geographical distance from the traditional centres of islam civilisation could be.2 precisely how the “grand tradition” is regarded the indigenous aspects within a local konteks is a an important yet complex aspect of all study on Muslim societies. The subject can be learned from perbedaan perspectives. One unfortunately yet not uncommon alternative seems to have actually been fully oblivious to the presence of Islam: together Thomas gibson notes, anthropological studies of Indonesian cultures in details show a dismal tendency of “editing out the islamic bits”.3 When selecting not to be blind to the pervasive dampak of Islam, the researcher might grapple v the melepaskan in plenty of fruitful ways. One can emphasis on the role that written, normative texts acquired from the “grand tradition” bermain in a neighborhood context,4 or emphasize the procedure of a selective fostering of traits from the islam cultural repertoire by a regional community,5 or stress the bersejarah contingencies the the socioeconomic and secara politis processes informing the neighborhood practice of Islam,6 or seek to identify distinct local arrays of islam belief and also praxis7 – return going therefore far as to speak the “islams” in the plural8 is probably ill-advised, – or again one can take on the widespread emic dichotomy of custom versus religion as the structure of analysis.9

While i recognise the merits of every these approaches, I find none that them to be adequate for the case at hand, a syncretistic ritual in i m sorry the very purpose the “tradition” is interpreted in kapak of islam ethics. The point is no that islamic concepts and also local traditions of pre-Islamic origin may blend; the is true yet trivial. Instead, Islam – often treated together a supposedly “foreign” superstratum over native tradition – have the right to in fakta provide most of the vocabulary because that elucidating neighborhood tradition and also even because that identifying its very meaning. To deal with sebagai a profound kadarnya of interplay between local traditions and also the supralocal islamic “grand tradition”, I find a conception presented by Talal Asad quite serviceable. That proposes to check out Islam together a shared discursive legacy that provides the theoretical tools for mentioning controversial issues in myriad neighborhood contexts.10 This technique has been found helpful by john Bowen,11 who applied it to his profound evaluation of the spiritual life of the gayo of northern Sumatra.12 In this conception, syncretism is no a definable melangkah of Islamisation, with more and more islam elements accruing until un-Islamic methods disappear and a “purer” membentuk of Islam (a an especially infelicitous notion) prevails. One finds rather a process of ongoing, undoubtedly interminable, perdebatan on what is properly Islamic, apa is permissible and why, the very terms of i beg your pardon – paling importantly – are identified by the islam “grand tradition”. Nor is the applicability that this approach limited to the riset of Muslim societies. Lorraine V. Aragon compellingly says that it is more meaningful to know local adaptations that a dunia religion, in this case Protestant Christianity in central Sulawesi, in kapak of a process of “active interpretation” rather of “incomplete conversion”.13

The goal of this short article is twofold. First, ns wish to argue the syncretistic spiritual practices amongst Muslims may in sebenarnya rely top top the islam textual tradition just as much as text-oriented – including modernis reformist – interpretations insurance claim to do, and also partly for that reason, syncretism deserve to prove quite long lasting vis-à-vis traditional and modern-day reformist challenges.14 In the particular case that I existing here, an aboriginal ritual honouring the founding ancestors is understood in terms of islam ethics. That interpretation has lent legitimacy to an ancient ritual in thoroughly islamic terms, even though the is currently contested, and the routine criticised, di bawah the affect not just of islam reformism but also of environmentalism and local politics.

The second goal is ethnographic – namely, to give the very first description in bahasa inggris (indeed in any kind of Western language) the a unique and also little-known ritual. The routine presented di sini is known as Molabot Tumpe (lit. “Bringing the very first ”) and also consists the an yearly offering of egg by the warga of Batui, a coastal kota in eastern Sulawesi, come the sultans’ empire on Banggai island. The egg are itu of the chicken-like maleo bird (Macrocephalon maleo), one endemic megapode that Sulawesi.

Lihat lainnya: Doa Untuk Dimudahkan Dalam Ujian Bagi Para Penghafal Al Qur'An

Come the ideal of mine knowledge, no considerable discussion that the routine exists even in Indonesian.15 ns attended the Molabot Tumpe ceremonies in Batui during the 2017 and also 2018 seasons, but in Banggai only in 2017. As I speak neither Batui no one Banggai, field was conducted in Indonesian throughout, a shortcoming however perhaps no a deadly one dari Indonesian is widely used in everyday social interaction as well as during the routine in Batui and Banggai alike and code switching takes place all the time.16